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阅读理解的题型概述和解题技巧(一)
发布时间:2016-10-26 15:23:05   来源:   评论:0 关注:

阅读理解的题型概述和解题技巧(一)(一)题型概述Ⅰ 阅读理解主要考查学生根据所提供的材料,综合运用语言知识并从中获取文字信息的能力,
阅读理解的题型概述和解题技巧(一)
(一) 题型概述
. 阅读理解主要考查学生根据所提供的材料,综合运用语言知识并从中获取文字信息的能力,主要包括阅读能力、理解能力、归纳概括能力、逻辑推理能力以及对材料的评估能力等。试题中所选的阅读文章话题多样,涉及经济、政治、社会文化、风俗习惯、历史地理、科学技术等各个领域;题材多样,包括记叙文、说明文、议论文、应用文以及新闻报道、广告、通知、操作说明、表格等各种文体,旨在全面检测学生从语篇中获取有效信息的能力,测试学生对语篇主旨大意、事实细节、逻辑关系等方面的把握水平以及理解的准确程度。该题型在近年中考真题中占有较大比重,对学生能否获取高分起到举足轻重的作用。
. 从测试题的设计和内容来看,对能力测试的要求主要归纳为4 点:
1. 概括全语篇的主旨大意,以及用以说明主旨大意的事实和细节。
2. 能准确理解具体的事实,也能理解抽象的概念。
3. 能准确理解语篇、语句的字面意思,也能理解深层的含义,包括作者的态度、意图等。
4. 既能理解某句、某段的意义,也能了解全语篇内部各信息之间的逻辑关系,并据此进行推理和判断。
(二) 真题示例
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的ABCD四个选项中选出最佳选项。
(2015·南通中考)My mom isn't fancy like other moms. They wear fancy clothes and drive fancy cars. My mom wears her gardening clothes when she walks me to school.
When fancy moms laugh, their laughs sound soft and whispery. You can hear my mom's laugh from down the hall. I show her how to laugh quietly and she practices. But before long she starts laughing even harder than before.
At the talent show, my mom cheers loudlyBravo, everyone! Bravo instead of clapping politely the way fancy moms do.
For our class hike(徒步旅行),  parents are invited. At breakfast I go over my rules for Mom, “Please don't whistle. Don't laugh loudly. No clapping. And stay in line.”
The other moms show up wearing fancy jackets and sneakers. My mom wears cut­offs, a floppy straw hat, and her old hiking boots.
We hike alongall in a line. Soon Mom starts to whistle her hiking songs,  She'll Be Coming Round the Mountain. I shake my head at her. She stops and whispers, “Oops. Sorry, Jane.”
We keep hiking. Everything is perfect until ...
Our teacher, Ms.Steele, stops and points, A snake All the moms hold their kids' hands and back up, except my mom. Watch out! It might be poisonous(有毒的)! Ms.Steele says.
The other moms shuttle back some more. However, my mom steps forward and says,  “Hmm. Let's see what kind it is. Nope, it's not poisonous.”
I shut my eyes. I know what's coming next. Mom makes a sudden attack.Got it she says. The other moms scream, not sounding fancy at all.
Kids gather around as Mom examines the snake.It's OK to touch she says.
Everyone's too scared, but I go first.Snakes aren't slimy I tell them. Right away, others line up. A couple of the fancy moms come up to touch the snake's tail.
Later, Ms.Steele tells us to draw our favorite part of the hike. After a while, I look around quickly. Everyone's picture is of Mom and me with the snake.
As we hike back to the bus, I squeeze Mom's hand.I'm glad I didn't tell you my don't­catch­snakes rule. She smiles. But soon, she's whistling her hiking songs again!
I start to make her silent, then stop. Instead, I take a deep breath and sing out too. Everyone joins in, even the fancy moms.
 1.  The word “fancy” in this passage is close to “________
                              
 
A. fashionable or expensive  B.  energetic or valuable
C.  modern or comfortable  D.  common or popular
 2.  Jane tries to make some rules for her mom because ________.
A.  she expects her mom not to catch snakes
B.  she is afraid her mom will make her lose face
C.  she wants her mom to be different from others
D.  she wishes her mom to act more politely than the other moms
 3.  Jane begins to feel proud of her mom when ________.
A. she goes first to touch the snake and other kids follow her
B. she joins her mom in singing together with the other moms
C. she tries to stop her mom whistling but later she gives up
D. she finds everyone drawing about her mom and her with the snake
 4.  Which can be the best title for the passage?
A.  My Mom Isn't Fancy  B.  Our Hike Isn't Perfect
C.  An Unpleasant Talent Show  D.  An Unforgettable Experience
答案:
【文章大意】本文是一篇记叙文。文章叙述了我的母亲穿衣和举止不像其他人的母亲那样优雅,这让我感觉到丢脸。后来在班级的一次徒步旅行中,大家突然遇到一条蛇,其他人的母亲都害怕不敢上前,只有我的母亲敢与蛇接触。这件事让我和周围的人都感觉到我母亲的可爱之处。
(  ) 1. A 词义猜测题。fancy作为形容词,意为时尚的;昂贵的。通读全文,作者眼中fancy mothers优雅又时尚。
(  ) 2. B 推理判断题。根据短文中作者把自己的母亲与其他同学的母亲比较,感觉自己的母亲举止和穿戴不如别人的母亲,让她丢脸,可以推断B项符合题意。
(  ) 3. D 细节理解题。根据短文倒数第二段As we hike back to the bus, I squeeze Mom's hand(从我紧握母亲的手)可知,从那时起我就已经开始为母亲感到骄傲。
(  ) 4. A 主旨大意题。文中作者一开始觉得自己母亲的行为粗俗,并为此感到丢脸。但母亲抓蛇之后,作者对母亲勇敢的粗俗行为感到自豪。故以“My Mom Isn't Fancy”为题较为贴切。



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